First Aid

Burns and Scalds Minor Burns without blisters

Place burned extremity into cold water or cover burned part with a towel soaked in cold water until the pain stops at least 15 minutes. Do not use ice.

Burns with blisters

See above. Do not break the blisters. Call me for advice on how to cover the burn. Any burn on the face, hands, feet, or genitals and any large burn should be seen by a doctor.

Large or deep burns

Call 911 or an emergency ambulance. Remove clothing. Do not apply any medications. Keep your child warm with a clean sheet and then a blanket until help arrives.

Chemical burns, Electrical burns

Disconnect electrical power. Do not touch your child with bare hands. Pull him or her away from the power source with dry wood or a thick, dry towel. All electrical burns need to be seen by a doctor.


Sunburn is common in the San Joaquin Valley with so many days of sun. The first treatment is prevention. Many over-the-counter sun blocks rated 30-40 are adequate when re-applied throughout the day. Yet, extra hours of sun do cause short term and long term injury to the skin so watch how much time your child spends outside. When prevention doesn't work, a first degree (redness and tenderness) or second degree burn (blisters and pain) can occur. First use oral ibuprofen for pain relief and anti-inflammatory action. Also topical over the counter 1% hydro-cortisone will ease the burning and redness. If you feel the pain or blistering is extensive call for an appointment.

Seizures or Convulsions

Protect your child from injury. Perform rescue breathing if your child is blue or is not breathing. If breathing, lay the child on his or her side. Put nothing in the mouth. Call 911 or an emergency ambulance.

Eye Injuries

If anything is splashed into the eye, flush gently with warm water for at least fifteen minutes. Call the Poison Control Center or my office for further advice. Any injured or painful eye should be seen by me or the emergency room doctor. Do not touch or rub an injured eye. Do not apply any medication. Do not remove objects stuck into the eye. Gently bandage the painful eye shut until you can get medical help.


Lay your child on his or her back with head to the side and legs raised. Do not give anything by mouth. Call my office. If your child does not wake up right away, call 911 or an ambulance.

Fractures or sprains

Do not move a child who may have a neck or back injury, because this may cause serious harm. If an injured part is painful, swollen, deformed, or if motion causes pain, suspect a fracture and splint it. Apply a cold compress and call me or go to Children’s Hospital Emergency room.

Head Injuries

No not move any child who might have a serious head, neck, or back injury, because this might cause harm. Call 911 or an emergency ambulance for any of the following:

· Any loss of consciousness or drowsiness

· Persistent headaches or vomiting

· Clumsiness or inability to move any body part

· Oozing blood or watery discharge from ears or nose

· Convulsions or seizures

· Abnormal speech or behavior

For questions about less serious injuries, please call me.


With child sitting and head bending slightly forward, squeeze nostrils together with thumb and index finger for about 5 to 10 minutes. This can be repeated twice. If bleeding persists you should call my office.


If your child is unconscious, becoming drowsy, having convulsions, or having trouble breathing, call 911 or an ambulance.

Swallowed poisons

Any non-food substance is a potential poison. Call the Poison Control immediately. Do not induce vomiting except after professional advice. The Poison Center will give you further instructions.

Fumes, Gases, or Smoke Get the victim into fresh air. Call 911 or the fire department. If the child is not breathing, start CPR and continue until help arrives.

Skin exposure

If acid, lye, pesticides, chemicals, or any potentially poisonous substances come into contact with a child’s skin, gently brush off the dry material. Remove contaminated clothing. Wear rubber gloves if at all possible. Wash skin with soap and large quantities of water. Call Poison control for advice.

Skin wounds

For all these conditions, make sure your child is properly immunized for tetanus. Any booster should be effective for about ten years after five year school shots or older 11-15 year shots.


Apply cold compresses for one-half hour. For extensive bruises, crushing injuries, or bicycle spoke injuries, call my office. For continued pain or swelling call my office.


Apply pressure with a clean cloth stop the bleeding. If the cut is large and deep, call for help and maintain pressure until help arrives. For minor cuts, wash with soap and water and cover with a dressing. If a cut might need stitches, seek medical care as soon as possible.


Wash scrape with soap and water. Cover with a non-stick dressing.


Wash with soap and water. Do not soak splinter. Remove small splinters with tweezers. If not easily removed, call my office.

Puncture Wounds

Do not remove large objects such as knives or sticks. Call my office. For minor puncture wounds, wash with soap and water and call my office. You should call the office to determine if you will need a tetanus booster. This is not necessary if the immunizations are up to date.

Stings and Bites

Remove the stinger with the scraping motion of a fingernail. Do not pull the stinger out. Put a cold compress on the bite to relieve the pain. If hives, paleness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, tightness in the chest, breathing difficulty, or collapse occur, call 911 or an emergency ambulance. For Black Widow spider bites call Poison Control.

Animal or Human Bites

Wash wounds with soap and water and call the office.


Place tweezers close to the head of the tick and the pull the tick away from the point of attachment. Call my office if the head remains attached, or if your child develops symptoms such as fever, rash, or headache.

Snake Bites

Call the Poison Control Center for snake bites. Do not apply ice. Take your child to Children’s Hospital Emergency room as soon as possible.

Splint the injured arm or leg. Keep the injured arm or leg elevated if possible.


Baby or Primary Teeth

If your child’s teeth are knocked out or broken, apply clean gauze to control the bleeding and call your dentist.

Permanent Teeth

If knocked out, find the tooth and rinse it gently without touching the root. Insert and gently hold the tooth in its socket or transport the tooth in cow’s milk. Go directly to your dentist or Children’s Hospital. Time is important.

If broken, save the pieces. Gently clean the injured area with warm water. Place cold compresses to reduce the swelling. Go to your dentist immediately.

Consider placing these numbers by the phone in clear view and alert any child care person where these numbers are:

· My Number (Dr. Simonian 325-6850 or after hours 221-3893)

· Police Department...

· Poison Control Center...

· Emergency Department...

· Ambulance or Paramedics...

· Fire Department...

· Emergency Family or Friend phone number...